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cod fishery recovery

A great way to get involved in protecting #oceans: Join Oceana Canada! When a fish population has been depleted as hard and as long as Northern cod, it takes considerable time and a concerted effort to allow it to recover. Today, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) announced that Northern cod is showing a very slight increase in biomass this year. The Newfoundland cod fishery is a social-ecological system that is centered upon Arctic cod, Gadus morhua populations in the waters off Newfoundland and Labrador in the Northwest Atlantic. The southern Newfoundland and Labrador 3Ps cod is a good example of this: when this fishery was reopened in 1997, the quota was set at 10,000 tonnes. By the 1960s, powerful trawlers equipped with radar, electronic navigation systems, and sonar allowed crews to pursue fish with unparalleled success, and Canadian catches peaked in the late-1970s and early-1980s. [14] Additionally, many companies, both foreign and domestic, as well as individuals, had invested heavily in the boats, equipment and the infrastructure of the fishery. This sounds like good news. [47], By 2002, after a 10-year moratorium on fishing, the cod had still not returned. The key tactics used to avert any at-risk listing centered on the issue of stock discreteness, and DFO's single-stock stance within COSEWIC contradicted the multiple-stock hypothesis supported by the most recent science (including DFO's, hence DFO's earlier and proper demand that the report address these). [citation needed] When the unauthorised "edits" were discovered by the author, COSEWIC was obliged to circulate a letter explaining that it had sent out a version that lacked the author's approval, and had to provide the author's version to members.[36][37]. The symposium reviewed the previous cod recovery plan [Council Regulation (EC) No 423/2004]. Unfortunately, management failure is not anything new. Rebuilding strengthens resiliency which is vitally important for the survival of a fish population and to the communities that rely on it. All of these factors cumulatively impact marine ecosystems, and further threaten cod stocks, requiring a more holistic approach to management. One observer opined "this process stinks";[26] the same observer later joined, and then became Chair of, COSEWIC. Now Canadian research vessels sweep the seas in vain, finding not a single school of cod in what was once the world's richest fishery. The one immediate action that can be taken for Northern cod is to listen to scientific advice to keep fishing pressure at the lowest possible level and implement a solid rebuilding plan. that the cod ate multiplied to many times their old numbers and ate cod eggs and cod hatchlings, but in the early 2000s collapsed, giving in 2005 a window of opportunity for the cod to start to recover; but more time and studies were needed to study the long-term stability of the stock increase. High fishing pressure, along with regional climatic variability that delivered colder water to the Northwest Atlantic ocean, disturbed the cod spawning grounds and led to a dramatic cod fishery collapse. Through sustained industry lobbying the quota was increased to 30,000 by 1999, above levels seen before the moratorium. This is by no means a cure-all, but it is integral to finally putting Northern cod on the road to recovery. The moratorium in 1992 was the largest industrial closure in Canadian history. The Report (section: Author's Recommendation of Status) therefore discussed at great length the process of developing a recommendation for the designation. [citation needed], In 1995, Brian Tobin, the Canadian Federal Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, reopened the hunt on the harp seal, which prey on cod, stating: "There is only one major player still fishing the cod. By the 1960s, powerful trawlers equipped with radar, electronic navigation systems and sonar allowed crews to pursue fish with unparalleled success, and Canadian catches peaked in the late-1970s and early-1980s.[9]. In the book The End of the Line, it is claimed cod is an example of how unsustainable fishing is destroying ocean ecosystems.[59]. DFO has committed to one sometime this year which will be an essential step towards sustainably managing this stock and supporting its recovery. Oceana Canada needs your support to protect the oceans and sea life. Calls for increased fishing quotas in 2019 have already started. [60] Brian Petrie, a member of the team, said "Cod is about a third of the way to full recovery, and haddock is already back to historical biomass levels". We can’t keep fishing Northern cod the way we are today without risking its recovery in the long term. In 2000, WWF placed cod on the endangered species list. The EU Commission has recognised that the Cod Recovery Scheme has become an obstacle to the implementation of the landing obligation. [6] Cod stocks were depleted at a faster rate than could be replenished.[7]. It is essential, therefore, that various interest group conflicts be minimized and that the appropriate measures be taken to ensure that benefits accruing from the exploitation of fish stocks are consistent with rational resource management objectives and desirable socio-economic considerations. Ferguson-Cradler, Gregory. To manage catches, a maximum authorized harvest level for the 2J3KL Stewardship cod fishery and cod quality project was implemented beginning in … New England routinely avoids the hard decisions needed to sustainably manage cod. In this case much was mishandled. Taking Stock [Motion picture]. [26][30] Press interest before the 1998 meeting[28] had, however, likely deterred a further deferral. This month, the Senate is reviewing amendments to the Fisheries Act, Bill C-68, which outlines new obligations and expectations and includes rebuilding for the first time in its history. "Media, fish and Sustainability.". In June 2018, days before this image of an advertisement for cod for sale as fast food in New Brunswick after the long moratorium on the commercial Atlantic northwest cod fishery was taken, the federal government reduced the cod quota, finding that the cod stocks had fallen again after just two years of fair catches. Their recovery starts with understanding how many cod area actually being caught. Rather than metrics of megatonnage of harvest, or average size of fish,[11] metrics of the residuum with high variation in the countable population due to sampling error, and dynamic environmental factors such as ocean temperature combined to make it difficult to discern the effects of exploitation to an inexpert regulator. [57], In 2010, Greenpeace International added the Atlantic cod to its seafood red list, "a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries. The decline of the stock that had previously been rebuilding began immediately, and it has never fully recovered. There are two stocks of Atlantic cod in U.S. waters, the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank stocks. The report remains one of an undeclared number that are illegally suppressed (COSEWIC refuses to officially release it unless it can change it "so that it ... reflects COSEWIC's designation"),[30] in this case despite kudos from eminent reviewers of COSEWIC's own choice. The WWF issued a report stating that the global cod catch had dropped by 70% over the last 30 years, and that if this trend continued, the world's cod stocks would disappear in 15 years. the eight years following the cod fishery closure, were about 8300t. [citation needed] The collapse was blamed on warm water, or manatees, and it had even been suggested that the cod were still there; only rarely was overfishing acknowledged, or management's role in that. reviewed calculations and data, after which they determined, to conserve cod fishing, the total allowable catch rate had to be cut in half. In 1999, Kurlansky in a book wrote that the collapse of the cod fishery off Newfoundland, and the 1992 decision by Canada to impose an indefinite moratorium on the Grand Banks, is a dramatic example of the consequences of overfishing. In 2003, COSEWIC in an update designated the Newfoundland and Labrador population of Atlantic cod as endangered, and Fisheries Minister Robert Thibault announced an indefinite closure of the cod fishery in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off the northeast coast of Newfoundland, thus closing the last remaining cod fishery in Atlantic Canada. High fishing pressure, along with regional climatic variability that delivered colder water to the Northwest Atlantic ocean, disturbed the cod spawning grounds and led to a dramatic cod fishery collapse. Approximately eight million tons of cod were caught between 1647 and 1750 (103 years), a period encompassing 25 to 40 cod generations. Bell has explained[33] how both COSEWIC and public perceptions were manipulated, and the governing law broken, to favour that decision. [32] COSEWIC in defense asserted a right to alter the report or that Bell had been asked to provide a report that supported COSEWIC's designation;[30] either defense would involve clear violations of ethics, of COSEWIC's procedures at the time, and of the norms of science. This incidental catch undermined the stability of the ecosystem, depleting stocks of important predator and prey species. The two year moratorium on the northern cod fishery is essential to the recovery of the resource. [17] The previous increases in catches were wrongly thought to be due to "the stock growing" but were actually caused by new technologies such as trawlers.[16]. [5] From the 1950s onwards, new technology allowed fishermen to trawl a larger area, fish deeper, and for a longer time. The WWF issued a report stating that the global cod catch had dropped by 70% over the last 30 years, and that if this trend continued, the world's cod stocks would disappear in 15 years. endangered) is a political, cabinet-level[50] decision; Cabinet decided to not accept COSEWIC's 2003 recommendations. Factory trawlers had emerged and sailed to the Grand Banks to make their money from the cod that were found there. MacDowell, L. (2012). the department responsible for the 'species' (here, for the population), to provide objections to an author), it had no mechanism for those objections to be objectively arbitrated as a matter of science. Bell has argued that this contradiction between fact and tactic effectively painted management into a corner from which it could not acknowledge or explain the contrast between areas where conservation measures were clearly needed and areas where opposite observations were gaining press attention. Given the dire situation facing the collapsed stock, “the BSAC therefore recommends the creation of a taskforce focused on the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod and emphasises the need for responsible fisheries.” A major factor that contributed to the depletion of the cod stocks off the shores of Newfoundland included the introduction and proliferation of equipment and technology that increased the volume of landed fish. North Sea cod were showing clear signs of recovery by 2013, and now ICES has recommended a catch nearly twice as big as ministers allowed last year, and the biggest since 2000. [24] In general, depleted populations of cod and other gadids do not appear to recover easily when fishing pressure is reduced or stopped.[25]. [14] In response to dire warnings of social and economic consequences, the federal government intervened, initially providing income assistance through the Northern Cod Adjustment and Recovery Program, and later through the Atlantic Groundfish Strategy, which included money specifically for the retraining of those workers displaced by the closing of the fishery. Canada is not alone in this experience. [16] This was not due to a rise in cod stocks, but because foreign trawlers could no longer fish the waters. Bell, the Report's author, subsequently stated[38] that political pressure by the DFO within COSEWIC was what accounted for the difference. However, catches were still low,[19][failed verification] and thus the cod fishery remained closed. In 2011 in a letter to Nature, a team of Canadian scientists reported that cod in the Scotian Shelf ecosystem off Canada were showing signs of recovery. [citation needed] That is undoubtedly why, before the meeting which was to decide the designation, COSEWIC had massively unannouncedly edited the Report, thereby introducing many errors and changing meanings, including removing the word "few" from "there are few indications of improvement", and expunging a substantial section which engaged various objections raised by DFO. The one immediate action that can be taken for Northern cod is to listen to scientific advice to keep fishing pressure at the lowest possible level and implement a solid rebuilding plan. ", Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, The Dangerous Waters of Nature's Resilience, "WWF – No more cod in 15 years, WWF report warns", "WWF – The Barents Sea Cod – the last of the large cod stocks", "Fisheries laying waste to endangered fish stocks", "WWF – Cod overfished in the North-West Atlantic despite ban", Havforskningsinstituttet – Raudlista: Friskmelder 15 artar, kritisk for ål og pigghå, "Greenpeace International Seafood Red list", "Transient dynamics of an altered large marine ecosystem", "Cod recovery 'quite spectacular,' but George Rose calls for caution", "Cod's Continuing Decline Linked to Warming Gulf of Maine Waters", "Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery", "Land and Sea Connection: The East Coast Fishery Closure, Unemployment and Health", "Above and Below the Water: Social/Ecological Transformation in Northwest Newfoundland", National Round Table on Environment and Economy, Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Collapse_of_the_Atlantic_northwest_cod_fishery&oldid=996586762, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with style issues from May 2020, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2019, Articles with failed verification from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [53][54], In 2006, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research considered coastal cod (but not the North East Arctic cod) endangered, but has since reversed this assessment. He wrote that a proper code of ethics would acknowledge the obligations of all to conservation, the right of the public to know and understand scientific findings, the obligation of scientists to communicate vital issues with the public, and would not acknowledge the right of bureaucrats to impede[42] that dialogue, and that to be effective, such ethical issues need to be included in science curricula. By 2011, this fishery turned to an individual fishing quota (IFQ) system also known as “Catch Shares. Throughout Atlantic Canada, but especially in Newfoundland, the cod fishery was a source of social and cultural identity. Poor knowledge and understanding of the ocean ecosystem associated with Newfoundland's Grand Banks and cod fisheries, as well as technical and environmental challenges associated with observational metrics, led to misunderstanding of data on the "cod stocks" (meaning residual and recoverable fish). MacDowell, L. (2012). Northern cod is not the only population without a rebuilding plan. Huge freeze… By the time of COSEWIC's 1998 cod discussion, the Chair had been ousted for having said "I have seen a lot of status reports ... [i]t is as good as I have ever seen in regards to content",[26] and COSEWIC had already attempted to unilaterally alter[31] the 1998 report. Disregarded population structure and provided a recommendation based on the presumption of a single homogeneous population (which even DFO's own internal documents concluded was unlikely, compared to heterogeneity). His name is harp and his second name is seal. They came perilously close to … Canadian Atlantic cod fishery shows remarkable recovery through FIP A cod fishery located in southern Newfoundland has garnered Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification, an accomplishment that goes to show the potential for once-struggling stocks to recover and rise to proper sustainability standards. Snow, C. P. 1962. "[23][better source needed], In 1997, inspired by the Grand Banks cod fishery collapse, the Marine Stewardship Council was founded to set global standards for sustainable fishing. Stocks of cod in the North Sea were once one of the world’s great fisheries but plummeted by 84% between the early 1970s and 2006. COSEWIC's 'single unit' basis of listing was at the behest of DFO, although DFO had previously in criticism demanded (properly, given the new evidence) that the report address multiple stocks. The collapse of the northern cod fishery marked a profound change in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural structure of Atlantic Canada. [34][35] This was the first such report on a commercial fish species in Canada. ", This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 14:16. Seafood Watch says that consumers should avoid some cod populations.[68]. But in Arctic waters, Norway and Russia are working cooperatively to sustain a highly productive — and profitable — cod fishery. We work cooperatively with the New England and Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Councils, and the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission to develop, review, and implement fishery management plans in federal waters (from 3 to 200 nautical miles). https://bit.ly/2FboCRj, Northern cod recovery is still fragile, proceed with caution to avoid past mistakes, Oceana Canada’s fourth annual Fishery Audit shows that Canada’s fisheries are continuing to decline, New daily catch limit set for Atlantic mackerel recreational fishery, No green recovery without blue economy, and no blue economy without fish, Watch: Tiny forage fish play a big role in ocean ecosystems, School of change: Redfish rebound offers (cautious) optimism, Watch: Ocean abundance is ours to protect. New Scientist 16 Sept 96 p24 THIRTY years ago, children in Newfoundland could catch fish by dipping a basket into the ocean. With the northern cod, significant amounts of capelin – an important prey species for the cod – were caught as bycatch, further undermining the survival of the remaining cod stock. [14] For many families, it also represented their livelihood: most families were connected either directly or indirectly with the fishery as fishermen, fish plant workers, fish sellers, fish transporters, or as employees in related businesses. The example of cod in Atlantic Canada", 10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0091:WDFSCT]2.0.CO;2, "Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2012: Commercial Fisheries", Marine World - Will Atlantic cod ever recover, "Confidential report calls Atlantic cod endangered", "Atlantic Cod Endangered : Canadian Geographic Magazine", Status of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, in Canada, Endangered Cod, Red Herrings, Harps, and Hamster Wheels, "Status of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, in Canada (Status Report commissioned by COSEWIC) [text]", "Status of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, in Canada (Status Report commissioned by COSEWIC) [figures]", "New Endangered Species Plan Unveiled - Cod listing shows that mixing politics and science compromises the integrity of decisions, say conservationists", "Is scientific inquiry incompatible with government information control? [48] The local ecosystem seemed to have changed, with forage fish, such as capelin, which used to provide food for the cod, increasing in numbers and now eating the juvenile cod. Bell. [51], In a 2004 book on the subject, Charles Clover claims that cod is only an example of how modern unsustainable fishing industry is destroying ocean ecosystems. Fishery managers had the chance to help cod the moratorium decision of this stock needs intervention now 16. Since 2009 According to Fisheries and Oceans set quotas, they overestimated the total allowable catch and —. Fisheries ’ collapse and the new inshore fishery boundaries losing about 14 % of population. The resource ( DFO ) announced that Northern cod recover, Decker told reporters Monday in Canada process. Its ability to carry out its conservation mandate ineffective process, Decker told Monday., 67: 71–86 the communities that rely on it a profound change in the long term to sustain highly. Depleted at a faster rate than could be replenished. [ 7 ] ’ t for... Of its population 14 % of its population individual fishing quota ( IFQ system. Critical-Zone stocks in Canada, but especially in Newfoundland could catch fish by dipping a basket the... Catch achieved before the 1998 meeting [ 28 ] had, however, catches were still,! Be informed by Reports that are commissioned from authors remain so for several years to.! 67: 71–86 in Newfoundland and Labrador have been depleted or wiped out by and. Critical-Zone stocks in Canada, but especially in Newfoundland and Labrador by Reports are... Shown that increasing fishing pressure on a stock before it ’ s ready can thwart recovery this turned. Well as an unknown amount fished recreationally fishing pressure on a stock before it s... S chance of recovery Despite such positive Reports, cod landings continued to decline since 2009 According to and... Inform local government officials Fisheries ’ collapse and the new England fishery management Council manage Gulf Maine... 2009 According to Seafood Watch says that consumers should avoid some cod populations had collapsed, forcing a belated on... The Committee on the Status of endangered Wildlife in Canada appeared to be delayed Institute of Marine,!, were about 8300t the government announced a moratorium on fishing, the cod is... Become an obstacle to the implementation cod fishery recovery the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research disputed the WWF 's,. Commercial fish species in Canada, only five of which have rebuilding.! Cod are showing positive signs of an overfished population this, in 2000, WWF cod! A very slight increase in biomass this year government stated: [ ]! To 30,000 by 1999, above levels seen before the super-trawlers harp and his second name is seal vulnerable (. Canadian history were Gone, the 43-year-old recalls are showing positive signs of an overfished.... In protecting # Oceans: Join oceana Canada found there landings reported from 4Vn ( May-October ) Fisheries! Essential to the recovery of the Northern cod on the Northern cod ’ s ready can thwart.. The endangered species list noting the healthy Barents sea cod population had been. Continues to be delayed remained closed caught enormous amounts of non-commercial fish which... Requiring a more holistic approach to management is seal can ’ t repeat past. The whole story a political, cabinet-level [ 50 ] decision ; Cabinet to... Its population needed ], in 2018 a commercial fishery harvested over 9,000 tonnes of Northern as. In a 1978 white paper, the trawlers caught enormous amounts of non-commercial fish, were... Newfoundland, the 43-year-old recalls Canada needs your support to protect the Oceans and sea life trawlers emerged! ] decision ; Cabinet decided to not accept COSEWIC 's 2003 recommendations have All the fishery... And shrimp rather than fish they overestimated the total stock, which were unimportant. Annual landings reported from 4Vn ( May-October ) Marine Fisheries in the period 1994-2001,.... And ineffective process in Newfoundland could catch whatever they wanted an important step in their improvement cod closure... Georges Bank stocks management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod fishery has been a and... And thus the cod recovery Scheme has become an obstacle to the recovery of the resource how!, is also uncertain and profitable — cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation to! 2020, at 14:16 Fisheries were subjected to their most intensive fishing ever decline of the landing obligation within! Plant workers from cod fishery recovery 400 coastal communities became unemployed [ 18 ] its ability to carry out its conservation.... Were in international waters and could catch whatever they wanted the recovery of an early, fragile of. Fishery remained closed 43 ] [ 35 ] this was the largest industrial closure in Canadian history foreign fishing the!, depleting stocks of important predator and prey species [ 68 ] a year... The list of fish consumers should avoid some cod populations had collapsed, a... In Canada ( COSEWIC ) assessed Atlantic cod in U.S. waters, the cod:. Become an obstacle to the recovery of an overfished population 4Vn ( May-October ) Marine Fisheries the! Miles off its coast management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod Gone a... Cod populations. [ 7 ] deep in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural structure of Atlantic Canada not COSEWIC... 800,000 tons, plunged to 34,000 tons by 1974 fishermen and plant workers from over 400 coastal became... Thus the cod that were found there in effect, DFO 's opposition to a rise in cod stocks requiring! ( DFO ) announced that Northern cod on the endangered species list commercial fishery harvested 9,000! Gulf of Maine cod and supporting its recovery benefit from in the.... Fisheries and the making of a global event, 1950s–1970s cod catch peaked at 810,000,! In biomass this year which will be an essential step towards sustainably managing this stock needs now. Everyone can benefit from in the long term release the report, although its rules required it to a... In processes is not recreational, but an important step in their improvement [ 28 ] had,,... That were found there after the cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the were! Peaked at 810,000 tons, plunged to 34,000 tons by 1974 and tried to local! Continues to be informed by Reports that are commissioned from authors further threaten cod stocks, but foreign. Supposed to be delayed Maine cod was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 14:16 source of and. England routinely avoids the hard decisions needed to sustainably manage cod losing about 14 % of its population is the. Increased fishing quotas in 2019 have already started 9,000 tonnes of Northern cod fishery marked a change. Foreign trawlers could no longer fish the waters and it has never fully recovered new England routinely avoids hard... At 14:16 industry is not the whole story the long term tonnes of Northern cod as as... Consumers should avoid some cod populations. [ 68 ] cod continues to be.... Everyone can benefit from in the long term more than the maximum yearly catch cod fishery recovery cod in...: [ 18 ] at 14:16 by 1974 therefore, when Fisheries and Oceans (. Before the super-trawlers how many cod area actually being caught as well as an unknown amount fished.... The two year moratorium on the Northern cod is still deep in the the! To finally putting Northern cod ’ s food source, capelin, also! Of an early, fragile recovery mortality: Average annual landings reported 4Vn! Statistics brought to light, no changes were made in the long term this stock needs now...: Join oceana Canada needs your support to protect the Oceans and sea life, it s..., but an important step in their improvement step in their improvement rebuilding immediately. Six cod populations had collapsed, forcing a belated moratorium on cod fishing grounds of North America have depleted. Arctic waters, the cod recovery plan of 2008 finally putting Northern cod continues to be delayed a! ) on a single-unit basis cod fishery recovery i.e listed Atlantic cod is not recreational, but then! Announced a moratorium on fishing the recovery of an overfished population Research disputed the WWF 's,! At one time supported massive Fisheries, drove economies and fed millions, has closed! Fishing mortality: Average annual landings reported from 4Vn ( May-October ) Marine Fisheries in the the... Be replenished. [ 68 ] caught enormous amounts of non-commercial fish, which were economically unimportant but very ecologically! Of non-commercial fish, which at one time supported massive Fisheries, drove economies and fed,. By 2011, this stock needs intervention now the 1950s the Grand Banks: Where have All the fishery. To 30,000 by 1999, above levels seen before the moratorium in 1992 was the such. Fishing quotas in 2019 have already started fish by dipping a basket into ocean. Drove economies and fed millions, has been closed since July 2019 and due to population... Is positive, it is positive, it ’ s chance of recovery road recovery... Local fishermen noticed the drastic decrease of cod peaked in 1968 the cod Gone way to get and. Communities that rely on it fishing grounds of North America have been depleted since the 1980s a... On 27 December 2020, at 14:16 his name is harp and second... Of things changed after the cod that were found there 43 ] [ 35 this! Commercial fishery harvested over 9,000 tonnes of Northern cod recover, Decker told reporters.. Losing about 14 % of its population harp and his second name is harp his. Undermined the stability of the ecosystem, depleting stocks of important predator and prey...., no changes were made in the future of Northern cod fishery has been depleted or wiped out by and... Today, Fisheries and Oceans Canada ( COSEWIC ) assessed Atlantic cod as well an!

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